7.5 – The Union with Sweden, 1814-1905

The union between Norway and Sweden emerged in the aftermath of a war in 1814. However, it wasn’t a desired arrangement in Norway. It’s important to note that this union was distinct from the earlier union with Denmark. Unlike the Danish union, Sweden didn’t govern Norway directly. Instead, the majority of governing authority resided in Norway. This meant that Norway retained its own constitution, establishing its independent institutions like the Storting (parliament) and a dedicated government. It was a significant step towards self-determination for Norway.

7.4 – 1814, Independence and Constitution

1814 er kanskje det viktigste årstallet i moderne norsk historie. I 1814 fikk Norge sin egen grunnlov, sin egen konge og sin selvstendighet. Men landet ble også tvunget inn i en ny union i 1814. I denne episoden skal vi snakke mer om 1814 og alt som skjedde i Norge da. Men først må vi snakke litt om hva som skjedde før 1814.

7.3 – The Enlightenment in Norway (the 18th century)

Norwegian Enlightenment began in the early 18th century and lasted until the early 19th century. It was a period of significant changes in Norway. New ideas arrived in Norway from other European countries. New plants, like the potato, came from South America. People enjoyed better health and longer lives. This was a period marked by the ideals and values of the Enlightenment, although the Norwegian Enlightenment was not identical to the French.

7.2 – Whitch Trials in Norway (1570-1695)

The period between 1580 and 1630 saw numerous witch burnings, with over half of the documented trials taking place during this time. Researchers argue that religious conflicts, political and economic instability, climate deterioration, and repeated periods of famine laid the foundation for the witch hunts. The persecution of witches was theoretically supported by widespread beliefs in the existence of demons and witchcraft. Numerous books were written about witches and sorcery. It is estimated that around 60,000 people were executed for witchcraft in Europe and America, with 310 individuals being convicted and killed for witchcraft in Norway.

7.1 – Modern Norwegian History: An overview

In this season, we will explore the modern history of Norway. That is, the history of the country from where we left off in season four, namely the Protestant reformation in Norway in the 16th century. In this first episode, I will give you a general overview of early modern and modern history in Norway from the sixteenth century until today. This will be a very brief overview and in the following episodes in this season, we will delve further into many of the events mentioned here.

6.10 – The Sami National Day (February 6)

The Sami, the indigenous people of Norway, has fought and is in some way still fighting to preserve their culture, and this has led to the creation of a Sami national day. February 6 is the national day for all Sami in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola-peninsula in Russia. It commemorates the first national meeting for the Sami in Norway in Trondheim in 1917, the first time a wide coalition of Sami in Norway gathered to discuss common Sami issues. This meeting was important in creating a common Sami movement. February 6 officially became the Sami national day in 1992.

6.9 – Constutition Day (May 17)

In Norway, we celebrate our Constitution Day on the 17th of May, and in Norwegian, it’s often only referred to as the 17th of may (17. mai). We celebrate our Constitution and our independence from 1814. This actually makes the Norwegian Constitution the second oldest in the world to still be in use, just behind the US Constitution. Also, the Norwegian constitution might have been the most democratic in the world when it was made in 1814. Therefore, May 17 is also a celebration of democracy in general.

6.8 – The Russetid (Celebration of Graduation)

Russetida, the celebration of graduation from upper secondary school, happens from the first to 17th of May, the national day of Norway. The students will then take on red clothes, a red russe hat and hand out russe cards, which many children collect. These cards will often contain a funny picture and quote from the person who hands it out. The russetid is also celebrated with a lot of partying and alcohol, and the russ have their own festivals and parties.

6.7 – Alcohol in Norway: Akevitt and Vinmonopolet

Akevitt er et ord som kommer fra latinsk aqua vitae og betyr «livets vann». Akevitt blir laga av nøytral sprit som er tilsatt et krydder eller en urte. Det kan for eksempel være nøytral sprit med dill eller med koriander. I Norge må den nøytrale spriten lages fra potet, mens det i Sverige og Danmark ofte lages med korn. Alkoholprosenten må være minst 37,5 %, men den kan ikke være høyere enn 60 %. Som regel ligger alkoholnivået mellom 37,5 % og 43 %. I Norge har man drukket akevitt siden 1500-tallet. Da kunne man få tak i krydder fra Østen og potet fra Sør-Amerika. I dag er akevitt det mest kjente norske brennevinet.

6.6 – Norwegian Folk Music

Alle kulturer har sin folkemusikk. Folkemusikk er tradisjonell musikk fra et sted. I Norge er folkemusikk først dokumentert i litterære kilder fra norrøn tid. Det vil si at de første norske folkevisene som vi vet har eksistert er over 1000 år gamle. Den eldste norske folkevisa som har overlevd og som blei nedtegna kommer fra 1695. Den er altså over 300 år gammel. Likevel var det ikke før på 1800-tallet at sangene og folkevisene blei systematisk samlet og nedskrevet.